The invention of planets orbiting at lower than 1 au from their host star and fewer huge than Saturn in numerous exoplanetary programs revolutionized our theories of planetary formation.
The basic query is whether or not these close-in low-mass planets may have fashioned within the interior disk inside to 1 au, or whether or not they fashioned additional out within the planet-forming disk and migrated inward. Exploring the position of extra big planets in these programs might assist us to pinpoint their international formation and evolution.
We searched for added substellar companions through the use of direct imaging in programs recognized to host close-in small planets. The usage of direct imaging complemented by radial velocity and astrometric detection limits enabled us to discover the large planet and brown dwarf demographics round these hosts to research the potential connection between each populations. We carried out a direct imaging survey with VLT/SPHERE to search for outer big planets and brown dwarf companions in 27 programs internet hosting close-in low-mass planets found by radial velocity.
Our pattern consists of very close by (<20pc) planetary programs, orbiting G-, Ok-, and M-type mature (0.5-10Gyr) stellar hosts. We carried out homogeneous direct imaging information discount and evaluation to seek for and characterize level sources, and derived sturdy statistical detection limits. Of 337 point-source detections, we don’t discover any new sure companions. We recovered the emblematic very cool T-type brown dwarf GJ229B. Our typical sensitivities in direct imaging vary from 5 to 30 MJup past 2 au. The non-detection of huge companions is in line with predictions primarily based on fashions of planet formation by core accretion. Our pilot research opens the way in which to a multi-technique strategy for the exploration of very close by exoplanetary programs with future ground-based and area observatories.
Overview of the 27 programs in our pattern. The planets are represented in orange if the minimal mass is used to scale the circle radius, in blue (HD 136352) if absolutely the mass is used as an alternative. On the suitable picture, we added the unconfirmed planets in grey. We point out the anticipated places of the recognized particles disk(s) with pink horizontal rectangles, with two doable buildings for 61 Vir and HD 38858, both a single-belt or a two-belt (darker area solely) structure. For the host star, the colour code is similar than in Fig. 2, and the larger the star marker is, the upper the stellar mass. The references for every system (star, planet, particles disk and/or binary companion) are indicated in Appendix A. — astro-ph.EP
Celia Desgrange, Julien Milli, Gael Chauvin, Thomas Henning, Anna Luashvili, Matthew Learn, Mark Wyatt, Grant Kennedy, Remo Burn, Martin Schlecker, Flavien Kiefer, Valentina D’Orazi, Sergio Messina, Pascal Rubini, Anne-Marie Lagrange, Carine Babusiaux, Luca Matra, Bertram Bitsch, Mariangela Bonavita, Philippe Delorme, Elisabeth Matthews, Paulina Palma-Bifani, Arthur Vigan
Feedback: 49 pages together with 31 pages of appendices and references, 31 figures, A&A, accepted
Topics: Earth and Planetary Astrophysics (astro-ph.EP)
Cite as: arXiv:2310.06035 [astro-ph.EP] (or arXiv:2310.06035v1 [astro-ph.EP] for this model)
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From: Célia Desgrange
[v1] Mon, 9 Oct 2023 18:00:06 UTC (24,538 KB)